Compilation

Compiled financial statements represent the most basic level of service CPAs provide with respect to financial statements.
In a compilation engagement, the accountant assists management in presenting financial information in the form of financial statements without undertaking to obtain or provide any assurance that there are no material modifications that should be made to the financial statements.

In a compilation, the CPA must comply with Statements on Standards for Accounting and Review Services (SSARSs), which require the accountant to have an understanding of the industry in which the client operates, obtain knowledge about the client, and read the financial statements and consider whether such financial statements appear appropriate in form and free from obvious material errors.

A compilation does not contemplate performing inquiry, analytical procedures, or other procedures ordinarily performed in a review; or obtaining an understanding of the entity’s internal control; assessing fraud risk; or testing of accounting records; or other procedures ordinarily performed in an audit.

The CPA issues a report stating:
The compilation was performed in accordance with Statements on Standards for Accounting and Review Services
The accountant has not audited or reviewed the financial statements and accordingly does not express an opinion or provide any assurance about whether the financial statements are in accordance with the applicable financial reporting framework. In an audit, the auditor is required by auditing standards generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAS) to obtain an understanding of the entity’s internal control and assess fraud risk. The auditor also is required to corroborate the amounts and disclosures included in the financial statements by obtaining audit evidence through inquiry, physical inspection, observation, third-party confirmations, examination, analytical procedures and other procedures.

The auditor issues a report stating:
The audit was conducted in accordance with GAAS. The financial statements are the responsibility of management. An opinion that the financial statements present fairly in all material respects the financial position of the company and the results of operations are in conformity with the applicable financial reporting framework (or issues a qualified opinion if the financial statements are not in conformity with the applicable financial reporting framework).

The auditor may also issue a disclaimer of opinion or an adverse opinion (if appropriate).

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